Lithography, steel engraving, and wood engraving techniques held a dominant position in the field of reproductive and applied graphics the nineteenth century. However, the so-called “Long Century” was also characterized by an increase in artistic graphics – graphic art objects viewed as independent artworks. Nevertheless, during the second third of the nineteenth-century graphic art was mainly limited to its reproductive and information-providing function. One of the few artists who devoted himself to artistic graphic art even during this time was the painter Bedřich Havránek (1821–1899), whose 200th birth anniversary it is this year.
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